Quantum computers would be like Einstein of computers, with extraordinary electronic brains that can complete tasks that are almost impossible for ordinary computers to complete. A 3×3-meter glass cube with 20 qubits that will be available for businesses and researchers in 2019 will be the first product to market with this amazing technology from IBM.

**QUANTUM COMPUTING: WHAT IS IT?**

The principles of quantum entanglement and superposition of matter are at the foundation of this branch of computer science. A different computational method is used than the traditional one. This would theoretically allow it to store many more states per unit of information and operate with more efficient algorithms at the numerical level, such as Shor’s or quantum annealing.

To overcome the limitations of classic computing, the new generation of supercomputers uses quantum mechanics, the study of atomic and subatomic particles. Although quantum computing presents scalability and incoherence challenges in practice, it makes it possible to perform multiple simultaneous operations and eliminates the tunnel effect that limits nanometric scale programming.

**QUBIT: What is it?**

The qubit is the fundamental unit of information in quantum computing rather than the conventional bit. This alternative system is characterized by its ability to superimpose coherently one and zero, the two digits of the binary system around which all computing revolves. However, bits can only have one value at a time – either one or zero.

Qubits in quantum technology can be both zero and one at the same time, in different proportions. As a result of this multiplicity of states, a quantum computer with 30 qubits can perform 10 billion floating-point operations per second or 5.8 billion more than a PlayStation-based video game console.

**QUANTUM COMPUTERS: OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS**

To function correctly, these computers require extremely precise pressure and temperature conditions as well as insulation. Due to the erasure of state overlaps and measurement errors that occur when these machines interact with external particles, they must be sealed for operation and be operated by conventional computers.

To prevent atoms from moving, colliding with one another, or interacting with the environment, quantum computers must have almost no atmospheric pressure, an ambient temperature below absolute zero (-273°C), and insulation from the earth’s magnetic field. Moreover, these systems only operate for very short periods, which results in the information becoming damaged and unable to be stored, making it even more difficult to retrieve the data.

The ability to take many different paths makes quantum computers much faster than standard computers. Rather than replacing existing systems, quantum computers will be used for solving incredibly complex problems. By eliminating such a large range of possibilities, a considerable amount of time can be saved.

Quantum computers are much faster than standard computers because they can take a vast number of different paths. Among the examples commonly cited is solving certain algorithms much faster, using which it is possible to factorize into prime numbers, solve the traveling salesman problem (find the shortest route), search through databases, or solve complex differential equations.

Furthermore, quantum computers would be able to create new drugs, simulate new materials, solve logistical problems, or create accurate simulations of chemical reactions that are still a mystery to us.

Operations in quantum computing instead produce qubits based on the quantum state of an object. These states refer to the undefined properties of an object before they have been detected, such as the spin of an electron or the polarization of a photon.

It is not unlike a coin that flies through the air before landing in your hand that unmeasured quantum states occur in mixed ‘super positions‘.

Superposition can be intertwined with those of other objects, which means even if we do not know their outcomes, they will be mathematically related.

These complex mathematically complex states of entangled ‘spinning coins’ can be plugged into special algorithms to solve problems that would take classical computer years to solve… if they could even do so.

In chemical reactions, such algorithms can be used to predict multiple particle interactions and solve complex mathematical problems.

**Quantum computers: types**

Quantum computers work by holding objects in a superposition state long enough to perform processing on them.

The in-between state of a superposition is lost once it meets materials in a measuring system, a phenomenon known as decoherence, and the superposition becomes a boring old classical bit.

To protect quantum states from decoherence, devices must still be easy to read while shielding them from decoherence.

This challenge is being tackled from a variety of angles, whether it is using more robust quantum processes or developing better ways to check for errors.

**QUANTUM COMPUTING USES**

Quantum computing may revolutionize fields like computer security, biomedicine, the development of new materials, and the economy. Here are some of the most significant benefits:

#### · **The finance sector**

Businesses would optimize their investment portfolios and improve fraud detection and simulation systems.

**The healthcare industry**

Research on DNA and the development of new drugs would benefit this sector.

**Cybersecurity**

As well as quantum programming risks, quantum key distribution (QKD) brings advancements in data encryption. An intruder can be detected using light signals, which is a new method of sending sensitive information.

**Transport and mobility**

Quantum computing has been used to improve the efficiency of aircraft by companies such as Airbus. As a result of Qubits, traffic planning systems and route optimization will also improve significantly.

**BIBLIOGRAPHY**

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